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Birding Central Chile - From the Heights of the Andes to the Pacific Coast

Comprehensive birdwatching and nature journey aiming to discover the surprising diversity of scenery and birdlife in the Mediterranean region of central ChileThis trip focuses in finding a variety of endemic species and other Chile's specialties and is suitable for both keen birders as well as more relaxed bird enthusiasts. Join us on this in-depth birding trip to mountain habitats, broad-leaf forests, Matorral scrub and rocky coastal areas of the Pacific Ocean. 

Next departure: November 2-8, 2018.

5 to 7-day trip from from Santiago de Chile. Optional 2-day extension to the Nothofagus beech forests of Altos de Lircay. 

 

Torrent Duck is often seen along El Yeso river, central Chile © Claudio F. Vidal, Far South Expeditions

Torrent Duck, Merganetta armata, is often seen along El Yeso river, central Chile © Claudio F. Vidal, Far South Exp


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Explore a fascinating and contrasting region of Chile holding most of the endemic bird species of the country. In the Andes we’ll look for Diademed Sandpiper-Plover and Andean Condor while in the coast we will concentrate in the many specialties of the Humboldt Current such as Inca Tern and Humboldt Penguin. In the scrub gullies vegetated by cacti, Puya bromeliads plus other xeric vegetation, we will look for Chilean Tinamou, Chilean Mockingbird and the skulking White-throated and Dusky tapaculos, Moustached Turca and Crag Chilia. The first two days of this trip we focus on the highlands of the Andes above Santiago, where we will look for several high-altitude specialists. The Coastal Range, between the Andes and the Pacific, holds most of Chilean terrestrial endemics, including three tapaculos. Finally, we’ll reach the Pacific coast, where we’ll look for the country endemic Seaside Cinclodes and several Humboldt Current endemics like Humboldt Penguin, Inca Tern, Peruvian Booby, Guanay Cormorant and Grey Gull, plus shorebirds and waterfowl in the productive coastal wetlands. 

 

OVERVIEW

Overview 

 

Birding at the beautiful mountain surroundings of El Yeso reservoir, near Santiago, Chile © Far South Expeditions

Birding at the beautiful mountain surroundings of El Yeso reservoir, near Santiago, Chile © Far South Exp

 

Itinerary in Brief (5 days, 4 nights)

Day 1 • Full day exploring the Andes: El Yeso Valley – Santiago (1 night)

Day 2 • Drive to the Pacific coast: Maipo Estuary – Laguna El Peral Nature Reserve – Quintero (2 nights)

Day 3 • La Campana National Park – Cachagua (Humboldt Penguin breeding colony)

Day 4 • Lampa marshes – Farellones and Valle Nevado – Santiago (1 night)

Day 5 • End of the trip

 

Optional 2-day extension to the Nothofagus beech forests of Altos de Lircay Nature Reserve. 

Day 5 • Drive to Vilches – Colbun Lake

Day 6 • Altos de Lircay Nature Reserve – Drive to Santiago 

Day 7 • End of the trip

 

Trip Highlights

• The magnificent Condor against the imposing Andes of Central Chile.

• Exploration to El Yeso Valley to try to find the stunning Diademed Sandpiper-Plover, one of the world's most peculiar and beautiful shorebirds.

• A large variety of habitats including mountains, forests, scrub slopes, wetlands and rocky coasts.

• Up to seven Chilean endemics including Crag Chilia, Seaside Cinclodes, Moustached Turca and White-throated Tapaculo.

• A wide array of endemic wildflowers growing from the coast to the mountaintops.

 

ITINERARY

Detailed Itinerary and Activities 


Day 1 • Full day exploring the Andes: El Yeso Valley

You will have an early start after meeting your birding guide at your hotel to spend a full day exploring El Yeso Valley in the Andean foothills, where will hopefully be rewarded with sightings of the endemic Crag Chilia plus our first Andean Condors, Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle, and several other Andean specialties such as Black-winged Ground Dove, Grey-flanked Cinclodes, Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant, Grey-hooded Sierra Finch and Yellow-rumped Siskin. Careful scanning of the grasslands and streams around the reservoir may produce the stunning Diademed Sandpiper-Plover, one of our main target species for the day. This is a lovely mountain spot where we will also have chances to see the cryptically coloured Grey-breasted Seedsnipe and passing flocks of Mountain Parakeet. 

Overnight at Hotel Galerias or similar, Santiago. (Picnic-lunch) (Guide). 

 

The stunning Diademed Sandpiper-Plover, Phegornis mitchellii, one of the most sought-after species in Chile © Far South Expeditions

The stunning Diademed Sandpiper-Plover, Phegornis mitchellii, one of the most sought-after species in Chile © Far South Exp

 

Day 2 • Drive to the Pacific coast: Maipo Estuary – Laguna El Peral Nature Reserve – Quintero coastal areas

During the morning we will visit the Maipo river mouth and surrounding coastal wetlands, including the exceptional El Peral Nature Reserve, where we will concentrate in finding the cryptic-coloured Stripe-backed Bittern, the brood-parasitic Black-headed Duck and the striking Many-coloured Rush Tyrant. We will also have a chance to find the scarce and local Ticking Doradito. During sunset and before heading north to Quintero, we will inspect the productive rocky coast as well as the Aconcagua river mouth. Here we shall search for the endemic Chilean Seaside Cinclodes and endemic seabirds of the Humboldt Current such as Red-legged and Guanay cormorants, Peruvian Booby, Grey Gull and the stunning Inca Tern. 

Overnight at Hotel Yachting or similar, Quintero. (Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner) (Guide). 

 

Chilean Tinamou, Nothoprocta perdicaria, a fairly vocal species of the grasslands of central Chile © Far South Expeditions

Chilean Tinamou, Nothoprocta perdicaria, a fairly vocal species of the grasslands of central Chile © Far South Exp

 

Day 3 • La Campana National Park – Cachagua (Humboldt Penguin breeding colony)

Early in the morning, we will visit La Campana National Park, where we will look for an interesting array of passerines mostly endemic to Chile, such as Dusky-tailed Canastero, Moustached Turca, Dusky Tapaculo and White-throated Tapaculo. La Campana NP is a productive birding area, with slopes and gullies covered by cacti, Puya, an endemic bromeliad, and abundant matorral scrubby vegetation. Here we hope to see Chilean Pigeon together with Striped Woodpecker, Giant Hummingbird and Green-backed Firecrown. During the afternoon we will explore the coastal areas north of Quintero, visiting a protected breeding colony of Humboldt Penguin; we hope to see the scarce and range-restricted Southern Sea Otter here, too. Before ending the day we’ll stop in a coastal marsh to see a variety of waterfowl including Red Shoveler, Yellow-billed Pintail, Speckled Teal and Chiloe Wigeon, all three lowland species of coot, Spot-flanked Gallinule and Plumbeous Rail, which surprisingly for a rallid is quite easy to spot as it often walks in the open when moving from one patch of reed to the next. 

Overnight at Hotel Yachting or similar, Quintero. (Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner) (Guide). 

 

Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, one of the most northerly species of its family © Far South Expeditions

Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, one of the most northerly species of its family © Far South Exp

 

Day 4 • Lampa marshes – Farellones and Valle Nevado 

Early in the morning we will drive a short distance north to visit some marshes. Here our targets will be South American Painted Snipe, Rosy-billed Pochard, White-cheeked Pintail and Cocoi Heron. Afterwards, we will head to the mountains once again, this time in the vicinity of Farellones, in the Andes above Santiago, for several Andean species including Mountain Caracara, White-sided Hillstar, Rufous-banded and Creamy-rumped miners, Cinereous, Black-fronted, White-browed and Rufous-naped Ground tyrants plus Greater Yellow Finch, and Band-tailed Sierra Finch. Condors are quite abundant here as well. We will also look for the endemic Chilean Tinamou and Chilean Mockingbird and we might have the chance to see Red-backed (Variable) Hawk and Aplomado Falcon. 

Overnight at Hotel Galerias or similar, Santiago. (Picnic-lunch) (Guide). 

 

An striking emberizid of the High Andes, Greater Yellow-Finch (male), Sicalis auriventris © Far South Expeditions

An striking emberizid of the High Andes, Greater Yellow-Finch (male), Sicalis auriventris © Far South Exp

 

Day 5 • End of the trip 

The trip ends after breakfast at your hotel. (Breakfast) 

 

Optional 2-day extension to the Nothofagus beech forests of Altos de Lircay Nature Reserve. 

 

Burrowing Parrot, Cyanoliseus patagonus bloxami, is quite common around Colbun Lake © Far South Expeditions

Burrowing Parrot, Cyanoliseus patagonus bloxami, is quite common around Colbun Lake © Enrique Couve, Far South Exp

 

Day 5 • Drive to Vilches  Colbun Lake

This morning we will drive south along the central valley and the Panamerican Highway in direction to Talca (35°S). We will head to the mountains once more to briefly visit a reservoir where our search will focus on the threatened local race of Burrowing Parakeet, which usually congregates in noisy flocks. The forested rural locality of Vilches will be our base tonight. Rufous-legged Owl usually roosts in the woodlands behind the lodge, a very good reason for a short ‘owling’ session!

Overnight Cabañas El Roble or similar, Vilches (Lunch, Dinner) (Guide)

 

The skulking and vocal Chestnut-throated Huet-huet, Pteroptochos castaneus, is one of our target birds at Altos de Lircay NR © Enrique Couve, Far South Expeditions

The skulking and vocal Chestnut-throated Huet-huet, Pteroptochos castaneus, is one of our target birds at Altos de Lircay NR © Enrique Couve, Far South Exp

 

Day 6 • Altos de Lircay Nature Reserve – Drive to Santiago 

At dawn, we will visit the temperate southern beech forests of ‘Altos de Lircay’ Nature Reserve to seek for several Patagonian woodland specialties. The Nothofagus forests are the home for an interesting array of species, including the rare Rufous-tailed and White-throated Hawks, Austral Parakeet, Thorn-tailed Rayadito and White-throated Treerunner. We will keep searching in the undergrowth bamboo thickets for the quasi-endemic Chestnut-throated Huet-huet and Magellanic Tapaculo. Along the road we will find the opportunity to observe the largest of the tyrant flycatchers, the Great Shrike-Tyrant, which usually perches on wires looking for large insects and even small birds and rodents! Drive back to Santiago in the evening.

Overnight at Hotel Galerias or similar, Santiago. (Breakfast, Lunch) (Guide).


Day 7 • End of the trip 

The trip ends after breakfast at your hotel. (Breakfast)

 

Notes

- As we will have an early start on Day 1, we recommend our guests to arrive to Santiago the day before.

- A pelagic trip can be arranged on request as part of this itinerary. This activity can be scheduled at an extra cost, either on the morning of Day 3 or Day 4. See details and rates on the following link.

 

MAP

Trip Map 


Birding Central Chile trip map

 

DATES & RATES

Rates & Conditions 

 

Scheduled Departures

 

Birding Central Chile
Trip Code CHL04 • CHL008
Trip Length 5-day trip • 2-day extension
Dates 2018 Nov 2-8
Price per person (USD) $2,198
Single Supplement (USD) $276
Scheduled trips are guaranteed to depart with a minimum of 4 participants. 

 

Private Departures 

You choose the date. Available from August through April. Departures from Santiago de Chile, Chile. 

 

Birding Central Chile
Trip Code CHL04 • CHL008
Trip Length 5-day trip • 2-day extension
No. of guests 2 3 4+ Single Suppl.
Price per person Ask Ask $1,507 $198
Optional Extension Ask Ask $691 $78
Trips are guaranteed to depart with a minimum of 2 participants.

 

What the trip includes/excludes

The above price is per person in US Dollars, based in double occupancy. All payments are in US Dollars.

Single supplement will be added if single accommodations are requested.

 

The trip price includes: All accommodations, meals and guide services as stated in the itinerary, private ground transportation during the tour, and park entrance fees.

The trip price excludes: Tipping, travel insurance, entrance tax to Chile, excess baggage charges, private excursions, à la carte dishes, snacks, drinks, laundry, telephone calls and anything else of a purely personal nature.

 

GALLERY

Photo Gallery 

 

Check out our photo gallery with images from recent birding trips to Central Chile

 

Austral Pygmy Owl, Glaucidiun nana © Far South Expeditions

Austral Pygmy Owl, Glaucidiun nana © Far South Expeditions

 

CHECKLIST

Field Checklist 


Birds and mammals possible to be seen during this trip

 

BIRDS

 

ORDER TINAMIFORMES

 

Family Tinamidae [Tinamous]

Chilean Tinamou Nothoprocta perdicaria

  

ORDER ANSERIFORMES

 

Family Anatidae [Swans, Geese and Ducks]

Black-necked Swan Cygnus melancoryphus

Coscoroba Swan Coscoroba coscoroba

Andean Goose Chloephaga melanoptera

Upland Goose Chloephaga picta

Torrent Duck Merganetta armata

Crested Duck Lophonetta specularioides

Chiloe Wigeon Anas sibilatrix

Yellow-billed Teal Anas flavirostris

Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica

White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis

Silver Teal Anas versicolor

Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera

Red Shoveler Anas platalea

Rosy-billed Pochard Netta peposaca

Black-headed Duck Heteronetta atricapilla

Lake Duck Oxyura vittata

 

ORDER GALLIFORMES

 

Family Odontophoridae [New World Quails]

California Quail Callipepla californica

 

ORDER PODICIPEDIFORMES

 

Family Podicipedidae [Grebes];

White-tufted Grebe Rollandia rolland

Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps

Great Grebe Podiceps major

Silvery Grebe Podiceps occipitalis

  

ORDER PHOENICOPTERIFORMES

 

Family Phoenicopteridae [Flamingos]

Chilean Flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis

  

ORDER SPHENISCIFORMES

 

Family Spheniscidae [Penguins]

Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti

  

ORDER SULIFORMES

 

Family Sulidae [Boobies]

Peruvian Booby Sula variegata

 

Family Phalacrocoracidae [Cormorants]

Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus

Red-legged Cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi

Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii

 

ORDER PELECANIFORMES

 

Family Pelecanidae [Pelicans]

Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus

 

Family Ardeidae [Herons]

 

Stripe-backed Bittern Ixobrychus involucris

Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis

Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi

Great Egret Ardea alba

Snowy Egret Egretta thula

 

Family Threskiornithidae [Ibises]

White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi

  

ORDER CATHARTIFORMES

 

Family Cathartidae [New World Vultures]

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus

Andean Condor Vultur gryphus

  

ORDER ACCIPITRIFORMES

  

Family Accipitridae [Hawks and Eagles]

White-tailed Kite Elanus leucurus

Cinereous Harrier Circus cinereus

Harris's Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus

Variable Hawk Geranoaetus polyosoma

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus

 

ORDER GRUIFORMES

 

Family Rallidae [Rails and Coots]

Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis

Plumbeous Rail Pardirallus sanguinolentus

Spot-flanked Gallinule Gallinula melanops

Red-gartered Coot Fulica armillata

Red-fronted Coot Fulica rufifrons

White-winged Coot Fulica leucoptera

 

ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES

 

Family Charadriidae [Lapwings and Plovers]

Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis

Snowy Plover Charadrius nivosus

Collared Plover Charadrius collaris

Rufous-chested Dotterel Charadrius modestus

Diademed Sandpiper-Plover Phegornis mitchellii

 

Family Haematopodidae [Oystercatchers]

American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus

Blackish Oystercatcher Haematopus ater

 

Family Recurvirostridae [Avocets and Stilts]

Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus

 

Family Scolopacidae [Sandpipers]

South American Snipe Gallinago paraguaiae

Hudsonian Godwit Limosa haemastica

Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus

Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca

Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes

Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres

Surfbird Aphriza virgata

Sanderling Calidris alba

Baird's Sandpiper Calidris bairdii

 

Family Thinocoridae [Seedsnipes]

Grey-breasted Seedsnipe Thinocorus orbignyianus

Least Seedsnipe Thinocorus rumicivorus

 

Family Rostratulidae [Painted-Snipe]

South American Painted Snipe Nycticryphes semicollaris

 

Family Laridae [Gulls and Terns]

Andean Gull Chroicocephalus serranus

Brown-hooded Gull Chroicocephalus maculipennis

Grey Gull Leucophaeus modestus

Franklin's Gull Leucophaeus pipixcan

Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus

Inca Tern Larosterna inca

South American Tern Sterna hirundinacea

Snowy-crowned Tern Sterna trudeaui

Elegant Tern Thalasseus elegans

Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis

 

Family Rynchopidae [Skimmers]

Black Skimmer Rynchops niger

 

ORDER COLUMBIFORMES

 

Family Columbidae [Pigeons]

Picui Ground Dove Columbina picui

Black-winged Ground Dove Metriopelia melanoptera

Rock Pigeon Columba livia

Chilean Pigeon Patagioenas araucana

Eared Dove Zenaida auriculata

 

ORDER STRIGIFORMES

 

Family Tytonidae [Barn Owls]

Barn Owl Tyto alba

 

Family Strigidae [Owls]

Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus

Rufous-legged Owl Strix rufipes

Austral Pygmy Owl Glaucidium nana

Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia

Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus

 

ORDER CAPRIMULGIFORMES

 

Family Caprimulgidae [Nightjars]

Band-winged Nightjar Systellura longirostris

  

ORDER APODIFORMES

 

Family Trochilidae [Hummingbirds]

Green-backed Firecrown Sephanoides sephaniodes

White-sided Hillstar Oreotrochilus leucopleurus

Giant Hummingbird Patagona gigas

 

ORDER PICIFORMES

 

Family Picidae [Woodpeckers]

Striped Woodpecker Veniliornis lignarius

Chilean Flicker Colaptes pitius

 

ORDER FALCONIFORMES

 

Family Falconidae [Falcons]

Mountain Caracara Phalcoboenus megalopterus

Chimango Caracara Milvago chimango

American Kestrel Falco sparverius

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus

  

ORDER PSITTACIFORMES

 

Family Psittacidae [Parrots]

Monk Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus

Mountain Parakeet Psilopsiagon aurifrons

  

ORDER PASSERIFORMES

  

SUBORDER TYRANNI [Suboscines]

 

Family Rhinocryptidae [Tapaculos]

Moustached Turca Pteroptochos megapodius

White-throated Tapaculo Scelorchilus albicollis

Magellanic Tapaculo Scytalopus magellanicus

Dusky Tapaculo Scytalopus fuscus

 

Family Furnariidae [Ovenbirds]

Common Miner Geositta cunicularia

Creamy-rumped Miner Geositta isabellina

Rufous-banded Miner Geositta rufipennis

White-throated Treerunner Pygarrhichas albogularis

Crag Chilia Ochetorhynchus melanurus

Wren-like Rushbird Phleocryptes melanops

Patagonian Forest Earthcreeper Upucerthia saturatior

Scale-throated Earthcreeper Upucerthia dumetaria

Buff-winged Cinclodes Cinclodes fuscus

Gray-flanked Cinclodes Cinclodes oustaleti

Dark-bellied Cinclodes Cinclodes patagonicus

Seaside Cinclodes Cinclodes nigrofumosus

Thorn-tailed Rayadito Aphrastura spinicauda

Des Murs’s Wiretail Sylviorthorhynchus desmursii

Plain-mantled Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura aegithaloides

Cordilleran Canastero Asthenes modesta

Sharp-billed Canastero Asthenes pyrrholeuca

Dusky-tailed Canastero Pseudasthenes humicola

 

Family Tyrannidae [Tyrant Flycatchers]

White-crested Elaenia Elaenia albiceps

Tufted Tit-Tyrant Anairetes parulus

Ticking Doradito Pseudocolapteryx citreola

Many-colored Rush Tyrant Tachuris rubrigastra

Austral Negrito Lessonia rufa

Spectacled Tyrant Hymenops perspicillatus

Ochre-naped Ground Tyrant Muscisaxicola flavinucha

Rufous-naped Ground Tyrant Muscisaxicola rufivertex

Dark-faced Ground Tyrant Muscisaxicola maclovianus

White-browed Ground Tyrant Muscisaxicola albilora

Black-fronted Ground Tyrant Muscisaxicola frontalis

Black-billed Shrike Tyrant Agriornis montanus

Great Shrike Tyrant Agriornis lividus

Fire-eyed Diucon Xolmis pyrope

Patagonian Tyrant Colorhamphus parvirostris

 

Family Cotingidae [Cotingas]

Rufous-tailed Plantcutter Phytotoma rara

 

SUBORDER PASSERES [Oscines]

 

Family Hirundinidae [Swallows]

Blue-and-white Swallow Pygochelidon cyanoleuca

Chilean Swallow Tachycineta meyeni

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica

 

Family Troglodytidae [Wrens]

House Wren Troglodytes aedon

Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis

 

Family Turdidae [Thrushes]

Austral Thrush Turdus falcklandii

 

Family Mimidae [Mockingbirds]

Chilean Mockingbird Mimus thenca

White-banded Mockingbird Mimus triurus

 

Family Motacillidae [Pipits and Wagtails]

Correndera Pipit Anthus correndera

 

Family Thraupidae [Tanagers]

Grey-hooded Sierra Finch Phrygilus gayi

Mourning Sierra Finch Phrygilus fruticeti

Plumbeous Sierra Finch Phrygilus unicolor

Band-tailed Sierra Finch Phrygilus alaudinus

Common Diuca Finch Diuca diuca

Yellow-bridled Finch Melanodera xanthogramma

Greater Yellow Finch Sicalis auriventris

Grassland Yellow Finch Sicalis luteola

 

Family Emberizidae [Sparrows]

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis

Family Icteridae [New World Blackbirds]

Austral Blackbird Curaeus curaeus

Yellow-winged Blackbird Agelasticus thilius

Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis

Long-tailed Meadowlark Sturnella loyca

 

Family Fringillidae [Finches]

Thick-billed Siskin Sporagra crassirostris

Yellow-rumped Siskin Sporagra uropygialis

Black-chinned Siskin Sporagra barbata

 

Family Passeridae [Old World Sparrows]

House Sparrow Passer domesticus

MAMMALS

 

Old World Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

Brown Hare Lepus europeus

Degu Octodon degu

Nutria Myocastor coypus

Southern Grey Fox Pseudalopex griseus

Culpeo Fox Pseudalopex culpaeus

Marine Otter Lontra felina

Southern Sea Lion Otaria byronia

 

BOOK NOW!

Tour Registration

 

To book this tour, please complete our online registration form. We will process your booking form and will send you (within 24 hours) a note with space confirmation and a deposit invoice with payment instructions. The deposit amount is US$ 500 per person. Full payment of the tour fee is due 90 days prior to tour departure.

NOTE: Inquires received on Saturdays, Sundays and Holidays will be replied during the following working day.

 

Cancellation Policy

Notice of cancellation can only be accepted IN WRITING from the person who signed the booking form and takes effect on the day such noticed is received by us.

 

Refunds are made according to the following schedule:

• If cancellation is made 120 days or more before departure date, the deposit less US$ 200 is refundable.

• If cancellation is made between 120 and 60 days before departure, the deposit is not refundable, but any payments covering the balance of the fee will be refunded.

• If cancellation is made fewer than 60 days before departure date, no refund is available.

This policy and fee schedule also applies to pre-trip and post trip extensions, as well as any transfers from one tour to another. We strongly recommend the purchase of trip cancellation insurance to protect yourself.